Abou Bakr As-Siddiq – First caliph of Islam :

His name and genealogy

His name was ‘Abdullah Ibn Abi Quhafa ‘Uthman Ibn ‘Amir.

Abu Bakr was the seventh in line of descent from taym, the son of Murra, the seventh ancestor of the Prophet. The clan to which he belonged was called banû taym from the name of taym. His mother salmâ was a daughter of his father’s uncle, saqr. Abu Bakr’s original name was ‘abdul ka’bah. He was also called ‘atîq. His mother had no surviving sons, and when she gave birth to Abu Bakr, she brought him to the temple and exclaimed, “O Deity, if this one is immune to death, then give him to me.

His birth

He was born about three years after the year of the elephant.

Before his conversion

He was one of the notables of the people of Quraysh and was among their scholars and was loved among them.

His conversion to Islam (-13 H.; 37 years)

Abu Darda reported that the Messenger of Allah said: “Will you not leave my companion alone? Will you not cease and desist and leave my companion alone! When I said to you, “O people, I am the Messenger of Allâh to you! You said, “Liar! “Except Abu Bakr who believed me! (al-bukhari)

The Prophet said, “When I invited the people to embrace Islam, all of them took time to think and hesitate, except Abu Bakr: he did not hold back, and did not hesitate! “(Ibn Ishaq)

Alî Ibn Abî Tâlib reported that Abu Bakr was the first Muslim man (Ibn ‘Asâkir)

The liberation of Bilâl (-13 H; 37 years)

He was freed by Abu Bakr As-Siddîq who had bought him from Umayya Ibn Khalaf for nine ounces of gold. The latter exaggerated his price in order to discourage Abu Bakr, but he said to himself: “If Abu Bakr insists on buying him for one ounce of gold, I will sell him at that price.
While Abu Bakr said to himself, “If he only agrees to sell it for a hundred ounces of gold, I will pay them.

His emigration to Madinah with the Prophet (1 H.; 51 years)

As soon as the Prophet’s departure was reported, the Quraishites set out on his trail and came to the entrance of a cave where the Prophet and his companion Abu Bakr had taken refuge… Allâh troubled the Quraishites: the footprints led to this cave, but it was obviously not frequented. Further down in the cave, Abu Bakr said to his friend Muhammad, “If any of them looks under his feet, he will see us…”
And the Prophet replied, “What do you think of two [people] of whom Allâh is the third?”

Allâh said, {If you do not help him… Allâh already helped him, when the disbelievers had banished him, second of two. When they were in the cave and he said to his companion, “Do not grieve, for Allâh is with us.” Then Allâh sent down His serenity upon him and supported him with soldiers that you did not see, and thus He lowered the word of the disbelievers, while the word of Allâh had the upper hand. And Allâh is Mighty and Wise} (9/40)

When they were rid of their pursuers, the Prophet and Abu Bakr found their guide Abdullah Ibn Uraqit and Abu Bakr’s shepherd, ‘Amir Ibn Fuhairah, and continued their journey. They passed by the tent of a woman called Umm Ma’bad Al-Khozâ’iyyah. The travelers had run out of food. They asked Umm Ma’bad to sell them something to last the rest of the way. But the woman, embarrassed, said, “By Allah, if I had any food, I would have given it to you for free.
The Prophet saw in a corner a frail goat. “What about this goat?” the Prophet asked.
“It is frail as you can see,” replied the woman.
The Prophet asked her to approach the goat. Then the Prophet put his hand on the goat and it suddenly became strong. Then he touched its udder and it filled with milk. The Prophet took some milk from the goat and began to give it to his companions. Then he gave some to Umm Ma’bad, filled a bowl for Abu Ma’bad, and finally drank from it. The travelers went on their way. When Abu Ma’bad returned, he was surprised to see the bowl of milk because he knew that their goat did not give milk. So Umm Ma’bad described the Prophet to him and told him what he did. He said to her, “This is the man whom Quraish is pursuing to murder him. Umm Ma’bad and Abu Ma’bad embraced Islam.

The Battle of Badr (2 H)

Anas said: “The Messenger of Allah consulted the people about the captives at Badr and said: “Allah the Mighty, the Majestic has made you triumph over them…”
‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allah, cut them off!”
The Messenger of Allah turned away from him. Then he said, “O people, Allah the Mighty, the Majestic has made you triumph over them. Yet only yesterday they were your brothers.
‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allah, cut them off!”
The Messenger of Allah turned away from him again and repeated the same words to his companions.
Abu Bakr then stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allâh, if you think you should forgive them and accept a ransom….”
The Prophet’s screwing was cleared of the expression of concern that had marked him, and he forgave them and accepted a ransom.
Then Allah, the Mighty, the Majestic revealed: {If not for a previous prescription from Allah, a great punishment would have befallen you for what you took (of the ransom)} (8/67).” (Ahmad no. 13143)

His pilgrimage

On his way back from TABUK, the Prophet thought about the pilgrimage. Then he said, “The polytheists circumambulate while completely naked, I dread the pilgrimage because of them.

He sent Abu Bakr to Makkah, followed by ‘Ali, with the mission of forbidding the polytheists from now on to go on pilgrimage, and to give them a period of four months to convert, at the end of which war would be declared between them and the Muslims, if they did not convert.

The Prophet (pbuh) sent three hundred Medinans with Abu Bakr, carrying twenty camels marked as offerings. (Ibn Sa’d)

Narrative of the Prophet’s death and Abu Bakr’s speech (11 H; 61 years)

‘Orwa Ibn Zubayr, may Allah be pleased with them, reported: Abu Bakr returned from the Sonh on his horse and stopped in front of the door of the mosque. He came, distressed and saddened, and asked permission to enter the house of his daughter Aisha and she allowed him to enter. He entered, the Messenger of Allah was dead on his bed and his wives were around. They covered their faces and hid from Abu Bakr except for Aisha. He uncovered the face of the Messenger of Allah and bent over him kissing him and weeping. He said, “What Ibn Al-Khattab says is not true. The Messenger of Allah is dead, by the one who holds my soul in his hand! Mercy from Allah upon you, O Messenger of Allah! You are so good, alive and dead. Then he covered him with his robe and went out quickly to the mosque. He passed over the shoulders of the people and came to the minbar. When he saw him coming, ‘Umar sat down. Abu Bakr stood up beside the minbar and called the Muslims. They sat down and listened.
Abu Bakr made the attestation of faith and gave a very touching introduction. Then he said, “Allâh mighty and glorious announced to his Prophet his death while he was alive and among you, just as he announced to you your death. Death is a truth and there will be no one left among you except Allâh mighty and glorious. Allâh has said: {Muhammad is only a messenger – messengers before him have passed away. If he died or was killed, will you turn back? Whoever turns back will not harm Allah in any way, and Allah will soon reward the grateful.
-This verse is in the Qur’an! exclaimed ‘Umar. By Allah! I did not know before this day that this verse was revealed (I was unaware of its meaning)!

  • Abu Bakr continued, “And Allah the Exalted said to Muhammad (pbuh), {Truly you will die and they will die too} (39/30). Allah the Exalted says: {All that is upon it shall perish. Only the face of your Lord, full of majesty and nobility, will remain} (55/26-27). He also says: {Every soul will taste death. But only on the Day of Resurrection will you receive your full reward} (3/185). Allâh made Muhammad live and kept him until he established the religion of Allah through him. Muhammad made the will of Allah triumph, transmitted the religion of Allah and fought for the cause of Allah, and then he died doing that. He has left you in the way; whoever perishes will have already received the proof and the remedy. He whose Lord is Allah, Allâh is alive and does not die, and he who worshipped Muhammad and considered him as a god, then his god is dead. Muslims! Be pious to Allah! Hold fast to your religion! Put your trust in your Lord! The religion of Allâh is unshakeable and the word of Allâh is complete. Allâh will help the one who helps Him and He will make His religion triumph. The Book of Allah is among us; it is the light and the remedy; through it, Allah guided Muhammad, peace be upon him; it contains the lawful and the unlawful. By Allah! We do not care about the creatures that are gathered against us. Our swords are drawn, we have not yet laid them down, and we will fight those who contradict us as we fought with the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him. Therefore, let no one go into perdition”. Then the Muhajirin went with him to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him.

Discussion about the caliphate in the court

Ibn ‘Abbâs, may Allah be pleased with them, said: ‘Umar said: This is what happened when the Messenger of Allah died. We were told that the Anzars had gathered in the courtyard of Banu Sa’ida to swear an oath to Saad Ibn ‘Ubeda, may Allah be pleased with him. I got up in a hurry along with Abu Bakr and Abu ‘Ubaydah Ibn Al-jarrah, may Allah be pleased with them. We feared that they would cause harm to Islam and we went to join them. We met two truthful men from the Anzars, Uwaym Ibn Sa’ida and Maâan Ibn Âadiy, may Allah be pleased with them. They asked, “Where are you going?”
We said, “To your tribe because of what they are planning.
They said, “Go back, for they will not disobey you or do anything that you dislike.
But we insisted on leaving. I began to arrange some words that I wanted to say until we arrived. They were around Saad Ibn ‘Ubedah who was sick and lying on a bed. When we entered, they spoke and said, “O Muhajirin! An amir of ours and one of yours!”
Houbèb Ibn Almondhir said, “I am the outstanding strategist and politician! By Allah! If you want, we will rekindle the war!”
Abu Bakr said, “Take it easy.”
I wanted to speak but he said, “Listen, ‘Umar!”
He praised Allah and congratulated him and said, “O Anzars! By Allah! We do not deny your virtues, nor your value in Islam, nor our duties towards you. But you know that this tribe, Quraysh, has a place among the Arabs that no other tribe has, and that the Arabs will only submit to one man among them. So we will be the rulers and you the ministers. Be pious to Allah! Do not undermine Islam and do not be the first to cause harm to Islam. I propose to you one of these two men (me and Abu ‘Oubeyda), which one will you choose, you can trust him.
By Allah! He had said everything I wanted to say, except this last word. By Allah! I would rather be killed and resurrected and then killed again and resurrected, without having committed any sin, than to be the leader of a group containing Abu Bakr.
Then I said, “O Anzars! O Muslims! The most deserving person after the Messenger of Allah is the {Second of two when they were in the cave} (9/40) : Abu Bakr who far surpassed all the others.” Then I took his hand and a man of the anzars preceded me and tapped his hand before me. Then the people followed each other and we left Saad Ibn ‘Ubeda.

Abu Bakr and ‘Umar rejected the caliphate in the court

Ibn Sirin said: On that day, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with them, joined the anzars.
Abu Bakr said: “O Anzars! We do not deny your virtues, and no believer denies your virtues. By Allah! Whatever good we have achieved, you have participated in it. But the Arabs will only accept one man from Quraysh and will not remain under the authority of another. The Qurayshites are the best speakers, they have the noblest origins and the noblest land, they are also the most generous among the Arabs. So swear an oath to ‘Umar!

  • No, they said.
  • Why not?” asked ‘Umar.
  • We are afraid of being disadvantaged.
  • As long as I live,” he said, “it will not happen. So take an oath to Abu Bakr.
  • You are stronger than I am,” Abu Bakr said to ‘Umar.
  • You are better than me,” replied ‘Umar.
  • You are stronger than me,” Abu Bakr repeated.
    ‘Umar gave the same answer. Abu Bakr repeated a third time and ‘Umar said, “My strength is at your service in addition to your superiority.
    They then swore to Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him. When Abu Bakr was sworn in, some people went to Abu ‘Ubaydah Ibn Aljarrah. He said, “You have come to me while the {Second of two} (9/40) is among you!”

‘Umar’s speech and the collective oath for Abu Bakr (11 H; 61 years)

Anas says: I heard the second speech of ‘Umar the day after the death of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him. Abu Bakr was silent and did not say a word. ‘Umar said, “I hoped that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) would live until he was the last of us to die. But if Muhammad died, Allâh put a light among us to be guided. Allâh has guided Muhammad and Abu Bakr is the companion of the Messenger of Allâh and the {Second of two} (9/40). He is the most worthy Muslim to be your leader. So stand up and take an oath (bayâa) from him.
A group of people had already sworn to him in the courtyard of Banu Sa’ida, and the public oath was then taken on the minbar. I heard ‘Umar say to Abu Bakr at that time, “Get on the minbar. ‘Umar kept pressing him until he went up and the Muslims took the oath.

His first speech as Caliph (11 H.; 61 years)

After the death of the Messenger of Allah and the election of Abu Bakr as Caliph, he said in one of his speeches: “Allah gave Muhammad longevity until he was able to establish the religion of Allah, make the word of Allah triumph, transmit the Message and fight for His cause. Allâh has taken his soul in this state and left you on this straight path, so whoever perishes, he will perish warned. Whoever considers Allâh as his Lord, let him know that Allâh is alive and will not die. And whoever worships Muhammad and takes him as a god, let him know that he is dead. O men! Fear Allâh! Hold fast to your religion and trust in your Lord. Allâh’s religion is already established, Allâh’s Word is perfect, Allâh grants victory to him who defends his religion. The Book of Allâh is in our hands, it is the light and the healing, by which Allâh guided Muhammad -may Allâh be pleased with him-, and in it is found the lawful and the unlawful. By Allâh, we do not care about those who gather to fight us. The swords of Allah are drawn and we have not yet put them in their sheaths. We will fight those who are hostile to us as we fought alongside the Messenger of Allâh. (Al-Bayhaqi)

The attempt to resign

Ibn Rahawayh reported: When he was appointed caliph, Abu Bakr sat sadly in his house. ‘Umar entered his house and Abu Bakr began to reproach him.
He said to him, “You have put me in this position of responsibility,” and he complained that he had to judge between people.
‘Umar said to him, “But you know that the Messenger of Allah said, ‘If the governor strives and reaches the truth, he has two rewards. And if he strives and errs, he has one reward. Abu Bakr was then a little relieved.

Abu Jahhaf reported: When Abu Bakr was sworn in he shut himself up for three days. He would come out every day and say, “Muslims! I have cancelled your oath! Take the oath to whomever you want. Every time, ‘Ali Ibn Abu Talib would answer him: “We do not accept your resignation and we do not dismiss you. Since the Messenger of Allâh has placed you in the front, who then will make you step back?”

Zayd Ibn ‘Ali reported, Abu Bakr, may Allâh be pleased with him, stood up on the minbar of the Messenger of Allâh and called out, “Is there any person who hates that I am an amir so that I should resign?” He repeated this three times.
‘Ali Ibn Abu Talib stood up and said, “No, by Allah! We do not accept your resignation and we do not dismiss you. Who then can make you step back when the Messenger of Allah has placed you in the front?”

One of the first things he did as caliph was to settle the debts that the Prophet could not do during his lifetime (11 H. – 61 years)

According to Jabir, the Messenger of Allah said to him, “If the contributions of Bahrayn came, I would give you such and such. But the gold of Bahrayn did not arrive until the death of the Prophet. When the gold finally arrived, Caliph Abu Bakr shouted loudly, “Whoever has a promise from the Messenger of Allah or to whom he owes something, come to us.
I came to him and said, “The Prophet has told me this and that. He gave me a certain amount of money. I counted it and it was five hundred (dinars or dirhams).
He said to me, “Take twice as much again. (Al-Bukhari, Muslim)

His firmness against apostates (11 H.; 61 years old)

Abu Hurairah said, “When the Messenger of Allah died and Abu Bakr succeeded him and a number of Arab tribes apostatized, ‘Umar said, “How can you fight these people when the Messenger of Allah said: “I have been commanded to fight the people until they say, ‘There is no god but Allâh’, and the one who said it has sheltered his property and life from me except for what is rightfully Islam’s, and it is Allâh who should call him to account”?
Abu Bakr said: “By Allah! I will surely fight all those who make a difference between prayer and legal alms because alms are the dues of property. By Allâh! If they refuse to give me a piece of rope which they used to give to the Messenger of Allah, I will fight them for his sake.
Then ‘Umar said: “By Allâh! I soon realized that it was Allâh who made Abu Bakr choose the solution of fighting and I knew that he was right”. (Al-Bukhari, Muslim)

Aisha (raa) says: My father rode his horse brandishing his sword towards Dhul Qas’ah and ‘Ali Ibn Abu Talib came and grabbed the reins of his horse and said: “Where are you going, caliph of the Messenger of Allah? I say to you as the Messenger of Allah commanded you on the day of Ummud: Put away your sword and do not cause us the calamity of your death. By Allah! If any misfortune should befall us in your person, the order of Islam will never be restored after you. Abu Bakr then returned and sent the army.

The Battle of Muta

The first business that Abu Bakr carried out was to send ‘Usama Ibn Zayd with a legion, with orders to go to the side of the land of Muta, where his father Zayd Ibn Haritha died a martyr.

After the death of the Messenger, the disaster became great, hypocrisy increased, some tribes apostatized and some refused to pay the zaka, the obligatory alms. Abu Bakr then set out to settle this important matter and ordered troops to be equipped to fight the apostates and those who refused to pay zakat. Abu Bakr went out with the army and marched until he reached Rabdhah which is a village near Madinah, three days away from Dhati ‘Irq. Then he was called back to Madinah and returned there; he had organized eleven legions to fight the apostates. So the armies went to the enemy and fought the apostates. Musaylama the liar was killed, and Tulayhah Ibn Khuwaylid fled to the land of Sham, he had claimed to be a Prophet, but later converted to Islam at the time of ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab. Among the companions, about seven hundred died as martyrs, most of them were those who knew the Qur’an by heart: among them Zayd Ibn al-Khattab the brother of ‘Umar as well as Al-Bara Ibn Malik the brother of Anas Ibn Malik, among the Bani Hanifah, about seventeen thousand men were killed.

The compilation of the Qur’an at the time of Abu Bakr

Zayd Ibn Thâbit says: “‘Umar was motivated because of the large number of Houffadh (people who had memorized the Qur’an) who had died. Already at the time of the Prophet, about seventy of them had been martyred in Bi’r Ma’ouna. And later, in the time of Abu Bakr, an expedition to Yamama against the apostates cost the lives of a similar number of houffadh (in the year 12 of the Hegira). All this made ‘Umar think and he tried to convince Abu Bakr with success. (Al-Bukhari)

When ‘Umar asked him to pay special attention to this project, he replied, “How can I do something that the Prophet never did?” However, when he realized the wisdom and need to undertake such an act, he resolved to do it and supported Zayd who was himself hesitant.

It was for this reason that Abu Bakr addressed him as follows, “You are a clever young man. We do not doubt your integrity. Moreover, you used to write the verses revealed to the Prophet.

The Battle of Dhamat As-Salsil (12 H. – 62 years)

Dhât As-Salâsil was the first great armed confrontation between the Muslims and the troops of Persia, under the first caliph.

It took place at the end of the wars against the apostates, where the Sassanids of Persia had lent a hand to the imposter Musaylima Al-Kadhdhâb.

The Muslim troops numbered 18,000 men under the command of Kahlid Ibn Al-Walid when they reached the borders of Persia. Refusing to embrace Islam and pay tribute, the Sassanid rulers of Persia had to confront the Muslims in this battle where they chained their soldiers for fear that they would flee the battle. No sooner had the weapons met than Kahlid Ibn Al-Walid got rid of the commander of the enemy troops called Ormizd, which lowered the morale of the rest of the fighters. Then, the Muslims were soon victorious, taking an important share on the Arabian Gulf.

His poisoning by the Jews of Khaybar (12 H.; 62 years)

Tabari reported in his Tarikh that Abu Bakr was invited to a meal by one of the main leaders of the Jewish community in Khaibar; the Caliph was at table with Al Harith Ibn Khalada, who was the renowned physician of the Arabs, and they were presented with a dish of rice.

Abu Bakr ate a mouthful, Al Harith also took a mouthful but immediately rejected it, crying out, “There is a poison in this rice that kills after a year!”

The appointment of ‘Umar as successor to the caliphate (13 H.; 63 years)

When Abu Bakr was under the influence of illness, he gathered Talhah, ‘Uthman Ibn ‘Affan, ‘Abdur-Rahman Ibn ‘Awf and others among the great companions to him and informed them that he saw ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattab as caliph. They approved of this and praised his opinion, then he appeared before the people and informed them that ‘Umar would be his successor. He ordered them to listen to him and obey him. Then he called ‘Uthman Ibn ‘Affan and said to him, “Write” and ordered him to seal it with the seal of the Messenger of Allah, which he did. Then ‘Uthman went out with it and read it to the people. Then they swore to ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattab and the people were satisfied that he was their caliph.

Then Abu Bakr summoned ‘Umar with whom he had a private meeting and said to him: “I have appointed you as my successor and I recommend you to fear Allah. There are certain duties that Allah does not require to be performed by night, which He cannot accept to be delayed in order to perform by day! Likewise, there are duties that one has to perform by day, which Allâh does not like to delay in order to perform them by night! Allâh does not accept any supererogatory acts until one has fulfilled the obligatory one which has priority! And if some of them will see their scales tipping towards the good on the Last Day, it will be only because of their attachment to the Truth. It is obvious that a scale that is loaded with evil deeds will not be worth much.
Allâh has mentioned the people of Paradise, praising them for the best deeds they have done, and He has forgiven them their mistakes. If you quote them in your turn, say to yourself: “I am afraid that I am not among them!”
Likewise Allâh has spoken about the people of Hell, and He has reminded them of what they committed. When you remember them, ask not to be of them. Do not only remember the verses that speak of Allâh’s Mercy, but also the verses that speak of His Punishment so that you may be one of those who fear Allâh and hope in Him. That you may be one who asks Allâh only for what is right and does not go into the ways of perdition!
If you take into consideration my recommendations, then make sure that the best absentee you wish to meet is death, for it will join you; but if you neglect what I have recommended to you, death will be that absentee whom you do not like to meet, whereas, verily, you will not be able to escape it! “

When ‘Umar went out, Abu Bakr raised his hands to the sky and invoked Allâh saying: “My Lord, I only wanted this decision for the good of the Muslims, to preserve them from any disorder (fitna), so I acted according to what You know best, and I did my best to do the right thing; so I appointed the best of them, the most capable among them to carry out this duty, the most attentive and the wisest. Behold, Thy decision in me is fulfilled (by death): Be He Who will take charge of them, for they are Thy servants; their will is in Thy Hands. O Lord, reform their guardian and make him one of your “rightly guided caliphs” and reform his subjects for him.

His death (13 H; 63 years)

His illness occurred on Monday the seventh of the month of Jumad in the year 13 AH, lasted 15 days, and he died on Tuesday at the time of the evening prayer, eight days before the end of the month.

The death of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq took place in the thirteenth year, on the night of the Tuesday before the last seven days of the month of Jumada Al-‘Akhirah, at the age of sixty three.

His caliphate lasted two years, three months and thirteen days (or seven days less).

What Abu Bakr said to ‘Abdarrahman Ibn ‘Awf at the time of his death

Abdarrahman Ibn ‘Awf reported: “Abu Bakr, As-Siddiq said to me at the time of his death: “I do not regret anything except for three things that I have done, and I wish I had not done them, and three things that I have not done, and I wish I had done them, and three things that I wish I had asked the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him.
Among these things, he said: “I would have liked, on the day of the court of Banu Sa’ida, to have thrown the caliphate to one of these two men: Abu ‘Ubayda or ‘Umar. He would have been emir and I would have been minister.
He also said: “I would have liked, when I sent Khalid to the Shèm, to send ‘Umar to Iraq. I would have spread my hands to the right and to the left in the way of Allah. As for the three things I would have liked to ask the Messenger of Allah, I would have liked to ask him to whom the caliphate should be given, so that no one would dispute with the caliph. I would also have liked to ask him if the anzars have the right to it. I would have liked to ask him about the inheritance of the maternal aunt and the niece by the sister, because I have a doubt about that.

As Abu Bakr was dying he uncovered his face and said to his daughter ‘Aicha (raa) who was distressed:
“Do not be in this state but rather recite: {And then here is the dizziness of death, revealing the truth at once. This is Man what you were trying to escape from} (50/19)
Abu Bakr then said: “Take these two garments, wash them, and use them for my shroud; for the living need the new more than the dead!

The washing of his body and burial

His wife Asma Bint ‘Ummais and his son ‘Abd Arrahman took care of the ritual washing of his body.

According to At-Tabari, ‘Umar Ibn Al Khattab ordered that he be buried immediately. He was buried next to the grave of the Prophet of Allah in the personal chamber (shuqqa) of the Messenger of Allah. ‘Umar, Talha and ‘Abd Arrahman (Abu Bakr’s son) went down to the grave and placed the body there.

His physical description

He had a white face, a thin body, no sideburns and a prominent forehead.

His merits

It is reported about Abu Mussa al-Ash’ari that he said: “I will be the porter of the Messenger of Allah today.
At that moment Abu Bakr came and pushed the door. I said, “Who goes there?”
He said, “Abu Bakr.
I said, “Wait a little.
Then I went away and said, “O Messenger of Allah! Here is Abu Bakr asking for permission to enter.
He said, “Let him pass and tell him about the Paradise.
I went back to Abu Bakr and said to him, “You may enter and the Messenger of Allâh will announce Paradise to you. (Al-Bukhari, Muslim)

According to Abu Hurairah, the Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever combines two good deeds in the service of Allah, he will hear the call from the gates of Paradise: ‘O slave of Allah! This is a good deed that you have done. The one who is among the fervent prayers is called from the gate of prayer. The one who is among the fervent volunteers for the holy war is called from the gate of the holy war. The one who is a fervent follower of fasting is called from the gate of Rayyan and the one who is a fervent giver of alms is called from the gate of alms. Abu Bakr said: “O Messenger of Allah! Let my father and mother be your ransom! Is it enough to be called from one of these gates to be sure of success (of entering Paradise)? Is it possible for someone to be called from all these gates at once?”
He said, “Yes, and I am hopeful that you will be one of them.” (Al-Bukhari, Muslim)

The Messenger of Allâh said, “If I had been allowed to have as my intimate friend someone other than Allâh, it would have been Abu Bakr. Only he is my brother and companion. (al-bukhari)

The Prophet said: “Abu Bakr and Umar will be the guides of all the adult men in Paradise: from the first to the last; except the Prophets and messengers of Allah”. (Tirmidhi, Ibn Mâja, Ibn Sa’d, Ahmad)

The Messenger of Allah said: “Surely, Abu Bakr, you will be the first person of my community to enter Paradise! (Abu Dawud and Al Hakim)

Hudhayfa reported that the Prophet said: “Take example from those who will come after me: Abu Bakr and ‘Umar!”. (Tirmidhi and Al-Hakim)

‘Aisha reported that the Messenger of Allah said, “There can be no question, when Abu Bakr is present in a group, of someone else leading the prayer!” (at-tirmidhi)

According to Ibn ‘Umar, the Prophet said to Abu Bakr, “You were my companion in the cave, and you will be my companion near the Pool (on the Day of Resurrection). (at-tirmidhi)

Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said, “Anyone who has helped me, I have been able to reward him for it, except Abu Bakr: he has done so much for me that only Allah will reward him on the Day of Judgment, and indeed, there is no money that has been so useful to me as Abu Bakr’s money was!” (at-tirmidhi)

Zayd Ibn Aslam reported from his father who said, “I heard ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab say, ‘The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) ordered to give alms, and I happened to have some money. So I said to myself, “Today I will do better than Abu Bakr, if I can ever compete with him. I gave half of my wealth. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) asked me, “What did you leave for your family?
I said, “I left the equivalent of what I gave.
But Abu Bakr brought all his wealth and the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) asked him, “What did you leave for your family?
He said, “I have left him Allâh and His Messenger.
I said, “I will never again compete with you in anything.

According to ‘Abdurrahman Ibn Abi Bakr As-Siddiq, his father once said to his guests, “Eat in peace. I, by Allâh, will not taste it. (He was afraid that the meal would not be enough for everyone).
‘Abdurrahman said, “By Allâh, every time they took a bite, the volume of the dinner increased by its base so that they ate to their fill and the food was even more copious than it was at the beginning. Abu Bakr looked at the food and said to his wife, “O sister of the blessed Firas! What is this?”
She said, “By all that I love, so here is our dinner three times as abundant as it was at the beginning.”
(Abu Bakr finally decided to eat with them and said, “The oath I took not to eat was only an inspiration of the devil.
He took a mouthful and brought the dish to the Prophet and ate it in his house. Now just at this time the term of a truce between us and certain tribes expired. Twelve of our men arrived, each with what men he could muster (to resume fighting against those tribes), and all of them were able to eat to their hearts’ content. (Al-Bukhari, Muslim)

Ibn Kathir said: “Abu Bakr was the most knowledgeable in the Book of Allah among the companions, because it happened that the Messenger of Allah appointed him to lead the prayer in his place, and the Messenger of Allah said: “He who leads the others in prayer must be the most knowledgeable among them.