The Muslim prayer – The salât (in Arabic : صلاة)

Who can perform the prayer ? :

Prayer is a duty for every Muslim who meets the following conditions:

Being a Muslim (having pronounced the Shahada)

To have reached the age of puberty: It is recommended, according to the prophetic tradition, that the child learns the prayer from the age of 7 years, and the practice at 10 years.

Being sane: According to a hadith: “The insane person is not responsible until he regains his reason.

The conditions for the validity of the prayer:

To have pure, clean clothes without images on them

To have a clean floor, without impurity or defilement

To be in a state of bodily purity, (minor and major ablution)

To cover the private parts of the body, from the knees to the navel for men at least, and for women the whole body except the face and the hands.

Praying within the prescribed hours, except for the sick and travelers

To face the Qibla, the direction of Mecca

To have the sincere intention to pray, because “Actions are only worth their intentions”.

How the prayers were prescribed :

Allah the Most High prescribed 50 prayers per day during the ascension of our Prophet (peace be upon him). Then he repeatedly asked for a reduction in the number and finally got 5 daily prayers.

Therefore, the divine reward remains proportional to the initial number, even if the final order is for 5 prayers.

According to Anas ibn Malick, Abu Dhar related that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “The roof of my room was removed when I was in Makkah and Gabriel (pbuh) came down, opened my chest, washed it with the water of zam-zam and then brought a golden bowl filled with wisdom and faith and poured it into my chest. Then he closed it, took my hand and took me up to heaven. When I reached the lowest heaven, Gabriel said to his guardian:

  • “Open.”
  • “Who is it?”
  • “Gabriel”
  • “Who is with you?”
  • ” Muhammad (blessings and salutations be upon him) “
  • ” Is he invested with the (divine) message? “
  • “Yes.”

When he opened, we continued our ascent, Allah prescribed 50 prayers for my community. On my return (to the earth) I met Moses and he said to me:

  • “What has Allah prescribed for your community?”
  • “Fifty prayers”
  • Return to your Master, for your people will not be able to do it.

I went back to Allah and got half of it back. Then I returned to Moses and he said to me again:

  • “Return to your Master because your community will not be able to do it”.

I returned to Him and He said to me:

“They remain 5 to perform but count 50 (to the reward). My word that is here is not alterable”.

Then he returned to Moses and said to me:

“Go back to your Master”.

I said, “I am ashamed to return to my master.

Reported by al-Bukhari (no. 342) and Muslim (no. 163).

Al-Hafiz ibn Hadjar said: “It is heard that the order to perform is for five prayers but their reward will be multiplied by ten.

Allah knows best.

The number of prayers and their times

Allah has decreed for the believers five prayers during the day and night.

  1. The dawn prayer “Subh”:

It consists of two rakaats, read aloud. It is done at the first light of dawn until sunrise.

  1. The midday prayer “Dohr”:

It consists of four rakaats, reading in a low voice. It is done when the sun is at the zenith (middle of the sky) until the Asr prayer.

  1. The afternoon prayer “Asr”:

It consists of four rakkats, reading in a low voice, it is done when the shadow of an object is equal to itself, and ends at the Magrheb prayer.

  1. The sunset prayer “Magrheb”:

It consists of three rakkats (2 rakkats in a loud voice and 1 in a low voice). Its time begins after sunset and ends when the last light disappears.

  1. The night prayer “Ichaa”:

It consists of four rakkats (2 rakkats aloud, and 2 rakkats in a low voice). It is done after the sun has disappeared, when the sky is completely dark, and ends at dawn.

“Salat remains a prescription for the believers at set times. (Qur’an. 4.103)

“And perform prayer at both ends of the day and at certain times of the night. Good deeds dispel bad deeds. This is an exhortation for those who reflect.” (Quran 11.114)

How to perform ablution :

There are two types of ablution, the minor and the major.

The minor ablution (El-Wudu)

Say “Bismillah”. The water used must be pure, colorless, odorless and tasteless.

Wash your hands up to the wrists 3 times.

Put water in your mouth and rinse it 3 times.

Wash your nose, suck the water through your nostrils and throw it out 3 times.

Wash your face 3 times while massaging.

Wash your hands up to the elbows 3 times, starting with your right hand.

Pass the wet hands from the chin to the nape of the neck.

Clean your ears from the inside and outside once.

Wash feet by massaging up to the ankles starting with the right foot 3 times.

At the end of the ablution, it is very meritorious to say the following invocation:

“Ach-hadou an lâ ilaha illallah wahdahou la charikalah, wa ach-hadou anna mouhammadane rassoula Allah. Allah houmma j’alna mina-tawabîne wa j’alna minal-moutatahirîne”

(“I testify that there is no God but Allah, the One and only, and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. O Allah, count us among the repentant and the purified.”)

The minor ablution should be renewed when:

  • Urinating
  • relieving oneself naturally
  • Emitting gas
  • Fainting
  • Sleeping
  • Loses a significant amount of blood
  • Touching one’s bare private parts

The major ablution (Al-Ghusl)

It is obligatory after sexual intercourse, menstruation, childbirth, discharge of semen for the man and viscous liquid for the woman during an erotic dream, after the death of the Muslim except for the martyr, or upon conversion of a non-Muslim to Islam.

It is also highly recommended before the Friday prayer.

How to make the major ablution?

Have the intention in your heart, then say Bismilah.

Wash your hands up to the wrists three times, then your private parts and their surroundings.

Afterwards, one makes the ablution as one does for the prayer, then one pours water on the head three times while shaking the hair with the fingers.

Then water is poured from top to bottom, starting with the right

Then water is poured from top to bottom, starting with the right and then the left, washing the neck, chest, belly, navel and legs. Finally, wash your back. The water should be passed over the whole body.

After the major ablution, a minor ablution is performed and then one can pray.

The Tayamoun (lustration):

It replaces the minor and major ablution if there is no water or in case of illness. It is valid only for an obligatory prayer. Water is replaced by other natural elements, such as sand, stones, snow, earth.

  1. To have the intention to perform the minor or major ablution
  2. Saying Bismillah
  3. Touch the stone with both hands together, once
  4. Wipe the face starting with the forehead, 1 time
  5. Put your hands on the stone again and wipe your arms up to your elbows and hands.

The Call to Prayer :

The Adhan

Ibn Omar reported: “When the Muslims arrived in Madinah, they gathered and waited for the arrival of the hour of prayer without a call. One day they had a discussion about this. Some of them said, “We should use a bell like the Christian bell. Others said, “We should use a trumpet like the Jews. Omar said, “Why not send a man to call for prayer? The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Bilal, get up and call for prayer.

         In Arabic and English: 

2 times Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar

Allah is the greatest

2 times Ach-hadu Anna la ilaha illa-l-lah

I testify that there is no God but Allah

2 times Ach-hadu anna Muhammad r-rasulu-l-lah

I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.

2 times Hayya ʿala-salat

Come to the prayer

2 times Hayya ʿala-l-falah

Come to the bliss,

2 times As-salatu Khayru min an-naūm

Prayer is better than sleep.

(only for the Subh)

1 time Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar

Allah is the greatest.

1 time La ilaha illa-l-lah

There is no true god except Allah

Muezzin :

The Prophet said, “When you hear the call to prayer, say exactly what the Muezzin says”. But when you hear these words, “Hayya ʿala-salat” and “Hayya ʿala-l-falah”, you should say “La hawla wala qouwwata illa billah” (there is no strength and power except in Allah)

Invocation following the call to prayer:

Jabir ibn Abdullah reported that he heard the Messenger of God say: “Whoever, after hearing the call to prayer, utters these words:

“Allâhumma rabba hâdhihi d-dahwati t-âmmati, wa s-salâti-l-qâ’imati. Âti Muhammadan al wasîlata wa-l-fadîlata, wa bhath-hu maqâman mahmûdan al-ladhî wahadtahu.”

Meaning: “O Allah, the Lord of this perfect call and of the office that is to be celebrated, grant Mohammad the eminent place and excellence, and raise him to the praiseworthy rank that you have promised him.”

To this one my intercession is due on the Day of Resurrection.”

After the adhan, it is necessary to wait for a few minutes for people to gather in the mosque or perform their ablutions. It is meritorious to perform 2 rakkats if one is already ready while waiting for the others.

At the time of the execution of the prayer, the muezzin quickly says the iqama, to invite the Muslims to line up:

“Allah Akbar – Allah Akbar, Achhadu An la iIaha iIlla Allah, Achhadu Ana Muhammadan rasulullah, Haya ‘ala salat, Haya ‘ala al-falah, Qad qâmati salât – Qad qâmati salat (the prayer will certainly start – the prayer will certainly start), Allah Akbar – Allah Akbar, La ilaha illa-l-lah”.

The Muslim prayer :

Invocations after the final greetings (Tashahud) :

It is recommended to say:

Astaghfiru l-lâha (3 times) (I ask Allah for forgiveness).
Allâhumma anta s-salâmu wa minka s-salâmu, tabârakta yâ dhâ-l-jalâli wa-l-ikrâm.
“O Lord! You are Peace and peace comes from You. Blessed are You, O Worthy of glorification and munificence.”

Lâ ilâha illâ l-lâhu, wahdahu lâ sharîka lah, lahu-l-mulku wa lahu-l-hamdu wa huwa halâ kulli shay’in qadîr. Allâhumma lâ mâniha limâ ahtayta wa lâ muhtiya limâ manahta wa lâ yanfahu dhâ-l-jaddi minka-l-jaddu.
“There is no god but Allah, the One, without a partner. To Him is the kingship, to Him is the praise, and He is able to do all things. O Lord! No one can withhold what You have given and no one can give what You have withheld. The fortunate one finds in his wealth no effective protection from You.”

Allâhumma ahinnî halâ dhikrika, wa shukrika, wu husni hibâdatik.
“O Lord! Help me to invoke You, to thank You and to worship You in the best way.”

Subhâna l-lâhi, (33 times) “Glory to Allah”
El-hamdu li-l-lâhi, (33 times) “Praise be to Allah”
Allâhu akbar, (33 times) “Allah is the Greatest
Lâ ilâha illâ l-lâhu, wahdahu lâ sharîka lahu, lahu-l-mulku wa lahu-l-hamdu wa huwa halâ kulli shay’in qadîr.

There is no god but Allah the One, without any partner. To Him is the kingship, to Him is the praise, and He is able to do all things.”